Barbiturate; Types, Indications/Uses, Contra Indications, Side Effects, Interactions

Barbiturate; Types, Indications/Uses, Contra Indications, Side Effects, Interactions

Barbiturate is a drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant, and can, therefore, produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to total anesthesia. They are also effective as anxiolytics, hypnotics, and anticonvulsants. Barbiturates have addiction potential, both physical and psychological. They have largely been replaced by benzodiazepines in routine medical practice, particularly in the treatment of anxiety and insomnia, due to the significantly lower risk of addiction and overdose and the lack of an antidote for barbiturate overdose.

Types/ Classification of Barbiturate

Mechanism of action of Barbiturate

Barbiturates act as nonselective depressants of the central nervous system (CNS), capable of producing all levels of CNS mood alteration from excitation to mild sedation, hypnosis, and deep coma. Insufficiently high therapeutic doses, barbiturates induce anesthesia. Barbiturates bind at a distinct binding site associated with a Cl ionopore at the GABAA receptor, increasing the duration of time for which the Cl ionopore is open. The post-synaptic inhibitory effect of GABA in the thalamus is, therefore, prolonged.


The effects of barbiturates on the number of cells expressing c-fos-like immunoreactivity (c-for-LI), a marker of neuronal activation, within lamina I, IIo of the trigeminal nucleus caudalis and the nucleus of the solitary tract 2 hours after the intracisternal injection of capsaicin (0.1 mL; 15.25 mg/mL) or vehicle in urethane-anesthetized guinea pigs (N = 45) /was examined/. Robust c-fos-LI was observed within nuclei of cells in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis after capsaicin (329 +/- 35). Barbiturates dose-dependently reduced the number of labeled cells to a maximum of 66% (1000 micrograms/kg intraperitoneally [i.p.], P < .01) in lamina I, IIo but not within area postrema, medial reticular nucleus, or the nucleus of the solitary tract. Pretreatment with bicuculline (30 micrograms/kg i.p.) blocked the effect of barbiturates, thereby suggesting the importance of the GABAA receptor to activation involved in the transmission of nociceptive information. Our studies suggest the possibility that GABAA receptors might provide an important therapeutic target in a migraine and related headache disorders.

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Indications of Barbiturate

Contra-Indications of Barbiturate

Side Effects

The most common


Rare/Less common

Drug Interactions

barbiturate,may interact with following drugs, supplements & may change the efficacy of drug

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