Pharmacology is the study of how medicinal substances interact with living systems. Pharmacology is The study of drugs, their nature, their sources, and their properties, absorption, distribution, biotransformation, elimination, interactions, toxicology and their therapeutic applications. Pharmacology is the study of the body’s reaction to drugs. or Pharmacology is a study of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of a drug.
It is Very Difficult To Summarize the whole Pharmacology but We have collected some very important Points from Various Pharmacology Books and other resources Which will Help Students Pass their exams.
Important Pharmacology Points 1-10
1. Amphotericin is active against most fungi and yeasts. It can be used for intestinal candidiasis.
2. Atenolol is a beta-adrenoceptor blocker that, when administered during pregnancy, may cause intrauterine growth restriction, neonatal hypoglycaemia and bradycardia.
3. Trigger factors for migraine include intake of specific food such as caffeine, chocolate, cheese and alcoholic drinks, exposure to light, hunger and missed meals, and air travel.
4. Nalidixic acid is a quinolone that is indicated only for urinary tract infections.
5. Both levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin are quinolones. Levofloxacin has greater activity against pneumococci than ciprofloxacin.
6. Levofloxacin, which is a quinolone that has activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms including pneumococci.Quinolones are bactericidal.
7. Terazosin is a selective alpha-blocker that relaxes smooth muscle and is indicated in benign prostatic hyperplasia because it increases urinary flow rate and improves obstructive symptoms. Terazosin is also indicated in the manage-ment of mild-to-moderate hypertension. After the first dose a rapid reduction in blood pressure may occur.
8. Norfloxacin is a quinolone antibacterial agent. Quinolones should be used with caution in patients with a history of epilepsy because they may cause confusion, hallucinations and convulsions as side-effects. They may precipitate convulsions in patients with epilepsy and in those with no previous history of
9. Tinnitus is an adverse effect of furosemide, especially when it is administered in large parenteral doses, as a rapid administration and in renal impairment.Not all diuretics are associated with tinnitus.
10. Propranolol is a beta-adrenoceptor blocking agent. The antagonist effect is associated with up-regulation of receptors. Once the drug is withdrawn abruptly, adverse reactions may occur due to the up-regulation of the receptors.
Important Pharmacology Points 11-20
11. Pseudoephedrine and ephedrine are sympathomimetic agents that stimulate alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors in the sympathetic nervous system, causing constriction of smooth muscles and blood vessels and producing bronchodilatation. They have central nervous system stimulant activity.
12. Miconazole is an imidazole antifungal that is available as an oral gel. The gel is to some extent absorbed from the oral mucosa and, because animal studies have shown that miconazole is fetotoxic, miconazole oral gel should be avoided during pregnancy.
13. Imipramine is a tricyclic antidepressant that, when administered during the third trimester, may cause tachycardia, irritability and muscle spasms in the neonate.
14. Hyoscine is an antimuscarinic agent that can be used for prophylaxis of motion sickness. Because it has a rapid onset of action it is administered 30 minutes before travelling. Cinnarizine is an antihistamine that is used for the prophylaxis of motion sickness but it has to be administered 2 h before travelling.Cetirizine is a non-sedating antihistamine that is used for symptomatic relief of allergies.
15. Chlorpromazine is an antipsychotic drug, specifically a phenothiazine derivative, that is characterised by pronounced sedative effects. Cautionary labels recommended are to avoid exposure of skin to direct sunlight or sun lamps and a warning that it may cause drowsiness and, if affected, not to drive or operate machinery and to avoid alcoholic drinks.
16. Ceftazidime is a ‘third-generation’ cephalosporin antibacterial agent. It has greater activity than cefuroxime against certain Gram-negative bacteria and less activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Ceftazidime is administered by deep intramuscular injection or intravenous injection or infusion. It is not available as tablets.
17. Salmeterol is a long-acting beta2 agonist that can be used regularly in patients with mild or moderate asthma. It can be used in combination with corticosteroid therapy. However, it should not be used in acute asthma attacks.
18. Remifentanil is a short-acting and potent opioid drug, which is preferred for use by injection for intra-operative analgesia compared with pethidine and morphine because it acts within 1–2 minutes. Its short duration of action allows prolonged administration at high dosage without accumulation and with little
risk of residual respiratory depression.
19. Griseofulvin and rifampicin are enzyme inducers. They can increase the rate of synthesis of cytochrome P450 enzymes, resulting in enhanced clearance of other drugs. When enzyme inducers are administered to patients receiving warfarin, a decreased effect of warfarin results. However, warfarin itself is not known to be an enzyme inducer.
20. Finasteride is an inhibitor of the enzyme 5-reductase, which is responsible for the metabolism of testosterone into the androgen dihydrotestosterone.Finasteride is used in benign prostatic hyperplasia and at a lower dose in male-pattern baldness.
Important Pharmacology Points 21-30
21. Imipramine is a tricylic antidepressant and, as with all types of antidepressants, hyponatraemia may occur in older people. This is possibly due to inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone.
22. Lidocaine is indicated for ventricular arrhythmias, especially after myocardial infarction, because it suppresses ventricular tachycardia and reduces the risk of ventricular fibrillation.
23. Trifluoperazine, a phenothiazine. It may cause pancytopenia, which includes agranulocytosis. Agranulocytosis is a condition resulting in a marked decrease in the number of granulocytes.
24. Piroxicam, which is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that does not exhibit selectivity for cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibition.Celecoxib, etoricoxib, meloxicam and Lumiracoxib are all selective inhibitors of cyclo-oxygenase-2.
25. Ibuprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug which brings about a reduction in the formation of prostaglandins that occur in an inflammatory reaction. Ibuprofen achieves this action by reversibly inhibiting cyclooxygenase enzymes. It is a propionic acid derivative.
26. Zanamivir is an antiviral agent used in influenza because it reduces replication of influenza A and B viruses by inhibiting the viral enzyme neuraminidase.It normally reduces the duration of symptoms by around 1–1.5 days.Zanamivir is not licensed for prophylaxis of influenza. It is indicated for the treatment of influenza and should be started within 48 h of the first symptoms.It is available as a dry powder for inhalation.
27. Metolazone is a diuretic with actions and uses similar to thiazide diuretics. It interferes with electrolyte reabsorption and is associated with profound diuresis. The maximum daily dose is 80 mg. Natrilix is indapamide.
28. Tramadol has fewer of the typical opioid side-effects, particularly less respiratory depression, less constipation and a lower potential for addiction.Tramadol, in addition to its opioid effect, also enhances serotonergic and adrenergic pathways.
29. Alfuzosin is an alpha-blocker that may cause drowsiness as a side-effect.
30. Ranitidine, an H2-receptor antagonist that can be administered as 150 mg twice daily or 300 mg at night.
Important Pharmacology Points 31-40
31. Rifampicin causes colouring of body secretions. Because of this side-effect,rifampicin causes discolouration of soft contact lenses and therefore patients should be advised not to wear soft contact lenses during treatment.
32. In adults the maximum daily dose of paracetamol should not exceed 4 g.Intake of paracetamol in excess of this dose may cause severe hepatocellular necrosis. Early features of paracetamol overdose are nausea and vomiting that tend to settle within 24 h. Liver damage is maximal 3–4 days after ingestion and this may lead to encephalopathy, haemorrhage and progress to death.
33. Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) is used in premenstrual syndrome. Deficiency of pyridoxine is rare but it may occur during treatment with the antituberculous drug,isoniazid.
34. Citalopram is a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI). SSRIs are associated with suicidal behaviour and this risk is higher in young adults. For this reason SSRIs should not be used in patients under 18 years.
35. Alfacalcidol is the hydroxylated derivative of Vitamin D. Alfacalcidol has a short duration of action and therefore problems associated with hypercalcaemia due to excessive dosage are short lasting and easy to treat.
36. Benzydamine is an analgesic that is indicated for the management of painful inflammatory conditions of the oropharynx such as mouth ulcers. It is available as an oral rinse and an oral spray.
37. Lactulose is a disaccharide that retains water in the bowel, leading to osmotic diarrhoea of low faecal pH. It discourages the proliferation of ammonia producing microorganisms and this characteristic is an advantage in hepatic encephalopathy.
38. Lactulose and is an osmotic laxative that is useful in constipation, producing an effect within 48 h. It is also useful in hepatic encephalopathy, which is a neurological syndrome occurring as a result of liver disease. The condition occurs as a result of toxic substances such as ammonia that accumulate because they are normally metabolised by the liver.
39. Diclofenac and is used during and after cataract surgery. Being a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), its anti-inflammatory properties are useful in the post-operative stage. It is also used in other conditions such as accidental trauma and radial keratotomy for its analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties.
40. Diclofenac is an NSAID and its use is associated with gastrointestinal side-effects including nausea, diarrhoea, bleeding and ulceration. Diclofenac is contraindicated in patients with a history of active peptic ulceration.
Important Pharmacology Points 41-50
41. Chlorpromazine, a phenothiazine that may be used at a maximum daily dose of 300 mg for adults in the management of psychomotor agitation. Twelve tablets daily of Largactil 25 mg would be necessary to achieve this dose.
42. Fluconazole, is a triazole antifungal agent that is used as a single dose of 150 mg for the management of vaginal candidiasis and candidal balanitis.
43. It is recommended to avoid using chloramphenicol during breastfeeding. Chloramphenicol is an antibacterial agent. It may cause bone-marrow toxicity in the infant.
44. Chlorpromazine, may be used in childhood schizophrenia and in autism.
45. Metabolism of phenytoin (anti-epileptic drug) is inhibited by clarithromycin (macrolide antibacterial agent) resulting in an increased plasma concentration of phenytoin. Phenytoin accelerates the metabolism of doxycycline (tetracycline antibacterial drug) resulting in a reduced plasma concentration of doxycycline.
46. Terbinafine is an allylamine derivative used as an antifungal agent. When used topically, terbinafine clears infection up to four times more quickly than imidazole antifungal agents. Terbinafine is the drug of choice for fungal nail infections.
48. Zolpidem, a non-benzodiazepine hypnotic agent. Dependence has been reported. Side-effects include amnesia, diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, vertigo, dizziness, headache, drowsiness, asthenia and disturbances of hearing, smell, speech and vision.
49. Zolmitriptan, which is a 5HT1-agonist used as an anti-migraine drug. It produces vasoconstriction of cranial arteries. Zolmitriptan is metabolised in the liver.
50. Valsartan is an angiotensin-II receptor antagonist that blocks the actions of angiotensin resulting in the lowering of blood pressure.
Important Pharmacology Points 51-60
51. Celecoxib is selective of cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitor that confers gastrointestinal tolerance.
52. Metronidazole is an anti-infective agent with high activity against anaerobic bacteria and protozoa.
53. Codeine, an opioid drug, suppresses the cough reflex by depressing the cough centres in the brain. Cough suppressants may cause sputum retention.
54. Fluticasone is a corticosteroid that can be used as an intranasal preparation in nasal allergy.
55. Mixture of levodopa and carbidopa (dopa-decarboxylase inhibitor) is used in parkinsonism to replenish the depleted striatal dopamine.
56. Diltiazem is a calcium-channel blocker, specifically a benzodiazepine derivative. All calcium-channel blockers have peripheral and coronary vasodilator properties. Diltiazem has a negative inotropic effect as a cardiac effect, although less than verapamil.
57. Enalapril is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. ACE inhibitors are associated with a persistent cough as a side-effect. Sometimes this side effect impacts negatively on the patient’s lifestyle and warrants withdrawal of treatment. ACE inhibitors, through their inhibition of angiotensin II formation, result in a reduction of aldosterone release.
58. Nitrazepam is a benzodiazepine that is used as a hypnotic in the short-term management of insomnia. Nitrazepam has a long half-life and therefore it is associated with more hangover effects than shorter-acting products such as lorazepam.
59. Isosorbide is a nitrate used in the management of angina and left ventricular failure. It is a potent vasodilator and side-effects associated with its use include dizziness, throbbing headache, flushing and postural hypotension.
60. Clarithromycin is an erythromycin derivative. Gastrointestinal side-effects include nausea, vomiting, dyspepsia and diarrhoea.
Important Pharmacology Points 61-65
61. Amiloride is a weak diuretic but its characteristic is that it causes potassium retention. When used in combination with thiazide diuretics, amiloride counteracts the potassium loss attributed to thiazide diuretics.
62. Metoclopramide is an anti-emetic agent that is usually recommended for the management of vomiting during pregnancy as a second-line treatment after an antihistamine drug such as promethazine has been used unsuccessfully.
63. Promethazine is a sedating antihistamine that may be used in the management of insomnia and may be used as a prophylactic agent in motion sickness.
64. Levocetirizine is an isomer of cetirizine. It is an antihistamine that may be recommended together with topical or systemic administration of sympathomimetic agents in the management of nasal allergy. The dosage regimen for adults and children over 6 years is one 5 mg tablet daily.
65. Antacid preparations provide effective and immediate relief from a gastric ulcer. Liquid formulations have a faster onset of action. However, antacids do not provide any healing of the condition. They are most effective when taken 1 h after food.