Category Archive Technology

Headphones; Types, Best Head Phone for 2020

Headphones (or head-phones in the early days of telephony and radio) traditionally refer to a pair of small loudspeaker drivers worn on or around the head over a user’s ears. They are electroacoustic transducers, which convert an electrical signal to a corresponding sound. Headphones let a single user listen to an audio source privately, in contrast to a loudspeaker, which emits sound into the open air for anyone nearby to hear. Headphones are also known as earspeakers, earphones or, colloquially, cans. Circumaural (‘around the ear’) and supra-aural (‘over the ear’) headphones use a band over the top of the head to hold the speakers in place. Another type, known as earbuds or earpieces consist of individual units that plug into the user’s ear canal.

Types of Headphones

Headphone size can affect the balance between fidelity and portability. Generally, headphone form factors can be divided into four separate categories: circumaural (over-ear)supra-aural (on-ear)earbud and in-ear.


Sony MDR7506 Professional Large Diaphragm Headphone


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  • Neodymium magnets and 40-millimeter drivers for powerful, detailed sound
  • Closed ear design provides comfort and outstanding reduction of external noises
  • 9.8-foot cord ends in a gold plated plug and it is not detachable; 1/4 inch adapter included
  • Folds up for storage or travel in a provided soft case
  • Frequency Response: 10 Hertz to 20 kilohertz
  • This large diaphragm, foldable headphones feature rugged construction, a secure, highly effective closed-ear design

Audio-Technica ATH-M20x Professional Studio Monitor Headphones, Black


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  • Advanced build quality and engineering
  • 40 mm drivers with rare earth magnets and copper-clad aluminum wire voice coils
  • Tuned for enhanced low-frequency performance
  • Circumaural design contours around the ears for excellent sound isolation in loud environments
  • Convenient single-side cable exit

Sennheiser HD-201 Lightweight Over-Ear Headphones


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  • Connectivity Technology: Wired
  • Lightweight and comfortable economical headphones, Cord Lenght: 9.8 feet (3 meters)
  • Features smooth silver design and leatherette ear pads
  • Delivers powerful, bass-driven sound.

Over-Ear Headphone, Wired Premium Stereo Sound Headsets with 50mm Driver, Foldable Comfortable Headphones 


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  • MAXIMUM COMFORT: The memory-protein earmuffs are Made in Germany, which designed to disperse pressure and heat build-up, combined with the soft leather headband to gives you maximum comfort & superior isolation.
  • NO MORE ADAPTER: A long, DJ-style 9.8-foot cord easily reaches from the TV or stereo to your favorite chair. A standard-sized 6.3mm plug and a 3.5mm plug are included. They both are completely detachable so that you don’t need to spend all hours of the day plugged into your mixer.
  • SHAREPORT TECHNOLOGY: You can daisy chain together as many of these headphones as you have, share the music or movie together with your friends or families.
  • WORKS WITH: iPad, iPod, iPhone, Android, and many other audio devices. High-quality sound, supreme durability, and maximum comfort. These are the headphones you’ve been looking for.


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  • ENSURE YOU BUY GENUINE TASCAM PRODUCTS! Products from sellers which say ‘fulfilled by Amazon’ under the price MIGHT NOT be an authorized TASCAM reseller, and might not be selling genuine TASCAM products which would forfeit any manufacturer warranties.
  • Foldable Design for Easy Compact Transport
  • Tightly-Stitched, Padded Headband and Ear Pads for Stylish Comfort
  • Closed-Back Dynamic Design with Clean Sound, Rich Bass Response and Crisp Highs
  • Snap-on 1/8” (3.5mm) to 1/4” (6.3mm) Adapter

Panasonic ErgoFit In-Ear Earbud Headphones RP-HJE120-K (Black)


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  • Connectivity Technology: Wired
  • Black ultra soft ErgoFit in ear earbud headphones conform instantly to your ears
  • Eight vivid fashion color options with color matching earbuds and cords (color matching for iPod Nano 5th generation)
  • Wider frequency response for fuller listening enjoyment
  • Long 3.6 ft cord threads comfortably through clothing and bags
  • Frequency Response 5 – 24,000 Hz and Impedance 16 ohms

Computer Headset with Microphone Noise Cancelling, Lightweight PC Headset Wired Headphones, Business Headset for Skype, Webinar, Cell Phone, Call Cente

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  • Noise Reduction Sound Card & Easy Access Control – Convenient inline Volume Switch & Mic/Speaker Mute for easy access. A Built-in noise-reduction sound card of the control box lower noise output from devices. Provide outstanding audio on both transmit and receive.
  • Extended Wear Comfort — Headband fluffy earpads pad with memory foam and wrapped by skin-friendly protein leather. Comfortably fit your head with the adjustable steel slider. Gentle Reminder: Depending on your head/ear size/shape, it may be a little tight for someone to wear which is designed to avoid sound leakage. In case of that and to get both audio and wearing comfort, please take off the headphone every 1-2 hrs. to get your ears to relax and protect them from muggy environment in use.
  • Multi-Purpose & Wide Compatibility – This headset can be used mainly for chatting, secondarily for music, and if needed, as a backup to a priority gamer headset(It is NOT specially designed for gaming, please DON’T compare it with professional gaming headsets). Wide compatible with Windows 2000/7/8/10/XP/Vista, Mac OS X, iOS, Android, Tablet PC.



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How Do I Get Rid of Hay Fever Naturally

How Do I Get Rid of Hay Fever Naturally/Hay fever is a type of inflammation in the nose which occurs when the immune system overreacts to allergens in the air.[rx] Signs and symptoms include a runny or stuffy nose, sneezing, red, itchy, and watery eyes, and swelling around the eyes.[rx] The fluid from the nose is usually clear.[rx] Symptom onset is often within minutes following exposure and they can affect sleep, the ability to work, and the ability to concentrate at school.[rx] Those whose symptoms are due to pollen typically develop symptoms during specific times of the year.[rx] Many people with allergic rhinitis also have asthma, allergic conjunctivitis, or atopic dermatitis.[rx]

How Do I Get Rid of Hay Fever Naturally


In predisposed persons exposed to certain allergens, IgE antibodies specific for food are formed that bind to basophils, macrophages, mast cells, and dendritic cells on Fc epsilon receptors. Once food allergens enter the mucosal barriers and reach cell-bound IgE antibodies, these mediators are released and cause smooth muscle to contract, vasodilation, and mucus secretion, which result in symptoms of immediate hypersensitivity (allergy). Activated mast cells and macrophages that attract and activate eosinophils and lymphocytes release cytokines. This leads to prolonged inflammation, affecting the skin (flushing, angioedema, or urticaria), respiratory tract (rhinorrhea, nasal pruritus with nasal congestion, sneezing, dyspnea, laryngeal edema, wheezing), gastrointestinal tract (nausea, oral pruritus, vomiting, angioedema, abdominal pain, diarrhea), and cardiovascular system (hypotension, loss of consciousness,  dysrhythmias) as per the Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics.

Causes of Hay Fever

  • Immune system disorders, for example hay fever or other allergies
  • Deviated nasal septum (where the wall between the two nostrils is bent to one side) or other abnormalities in or near the nose
  • Intolerance of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA – the drug in Aspirin)
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), a condition in which stomach acids back up into your throat
  • Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways. This feature of asthma has implications for the diagnosis, management, and potential prevention of the disease.
  • The immuno histopathologic features of asthma include inflammatory cell infiltration:

    • Neutrophils (especially in sudden-onset, fatal asthma exacerbations; occupational asthma, and patients who smoke)
    • Eosinophils
    • Lymphocytes
    • Mast cell activation
    • Epithelial cell injury
  • Airway inflammation contributes to airway hyperresponsiveness, airflow limitation, respiratory symptoms, and disease chronicity.
  • In some patients, persistent changes in airway structure occur, including sub-basement fibrosis, mucus hypersecretion, injury to epithelial cells, smooth muscle hypertrophy, and angiogenesis.
  • Gene-by-environment interactions are important to the expression of asthma.
  • Atopy, the genetic predisposition for the development of an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated response to common aeroallergens, is the strongest identifiable predisposing factor for developing asthma.
  • Viral respiratory infections are one of the most important causes of asthma exacerbation and may also contribute to the development of asthma.

Symptoms of Hay Fever

Often has the following typical symptoms

  • Coughing – Coughing from asthma often is worse at night or early in the morning, making it hard to sleep.
  • Wheezing – Wheezing is a whistling or squeaky sound that occurs when you breathe.
  • Chest tightness – This may feel like something is squeezing or sitting on your chest.
  • Shortness of breath – Some people who have asthma say they can’t catch their breath or they feel out of breath. You may feel like you can’t get air out of your lungs.
  • Increasing difficulty breathing – (measurable with a peak flow meter, a device used to check how well your lungs are working)
  • Shortness of breath
  • Trouble sleeping caused by shortness of breath, coughing or wheezing
  • A whistling or wheezing sound when exhaling (wheezing is a common sign of asthma in children)
  • Coughing or wheezing attacks that are worsened by a respiratory virus, such as a cold or the flu
  • Stuffy nose
  • Coughing
  • Fever
  • Pain
  • Swelling
  • A build-up of pus

Diagnosis of Hay Fever

History and Physical

Pertinent History

  • Onset of symptoms
  • Environmental triggers (inside and outside the home) and risk factors (such as tobacco use or exposures)
  • Current therapy and previous history specific to their attacks
  • History of prior hospitalization or intubation for asthma
  • Occupation (sensitizers and 10% by irritants cause 90% of occupational asthma)*
  • Ask about food allergies
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms
  • Use of medications such as NSAIDs and aspirin
  • If exercise triggers shortness of breath

Asthma Symptoms

  • Coughing
  • Shortness of breath
  • Wheezing
  • Chest tightness or pressure

Physical Examination Findings during an Acute Exacerbation

  • Tachypnea
  • Wheezing
  • Accessory muscle use
  • Retractions
  • Prolonged expiratory phase
  • Sometimes there is limited air movement which can occur in severe cases

Sensitizers include animals, bioaerosols, drugs, enzymes, latex, plants, seafood, acid anhydrides, metals, wood dust, persulfate, rosin, and isocyanates. Irritants include chlorine and high-level dust and smoke. ,


Food allergies that cause gastrointestinal manifestations are often the initial form of allergy to affect infants and young children, causing irritability, vomiting or “spitting-up,” diarrhea, and poor weight gain. There are three main entities related to food allergies associated with gastrointestinal symptoms

  • Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES)  these patients can present with emesis one to three hours after feeding, and constant exposure might result in abdominal distention, bloody diarrhea, anemia, and faltering weight and are provoked by cow’s milk or soy protein-based formulas.
  • Food protein-induced proctocolitis is known to cause blood-streaked stools in otherwise healthy infants in the first few months of life and is associated with breastfed infants.
  • Food protein-induced enteropathy  is associated with steatorrhea and poor weight gain in the first several months of life.


  • Atopic dermatitisalso known as eczema, is linked to asthma and allergic rhinitis, and about 30% of children with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis have food allergies.
  • Acute urticaria and angioedema – are one of the most common symptoms of food allergic reactions and tend to have very rapid onset after the responsible allergen is ingested. Most likely foods include egg, milk, peanuts, and nuts, but sesame and poppy seeds and fruits such as kiwi have been linked.
  • Perioral dermatitis is benign and is regularly a contact dermatitis caused by substances in toothpaste, gum, lipstick, or medications. These tend to resolve spontaneously.


  • Respiratory food allergies are uncommon as isolated symptoms. Wheezing occurs in approximately 25% of IgE-mediated food allergic reactions, but only approximately 10% of asthmatic patients have food-induced respiratory symptoms.

Hay Fever Treatment

Various medications are available to treat the symptoms:

  • Antihistamines
  • Steroids (corticosteroids)
  • Chromones (mast cell stabilizers)
  • Leukotriene receptor antagonists
  • Decongestant nasal drops and sprays

There are also non-drug alternatives such as saline (salt water) nasal sprays and nasal washes (nasal irrigation). Allergen-specific immunotherapy (also known as desensitization) can reduce your sensitivity to allergens over the long term. Like with vaccines, this treatment approach involves being exposed to small amounts of the substance by having it injected or placing it under your tongue. In allergen-specific immunotherapy, you are exposed to the allergen at regular intervals. The treatment takes about three years to complete.


Oral antihistamines are effective in patients with mild to moderate disease, particularly in those whose main symptoms are palatal itch, sneezing, rhinorrhoea, or eye symptoms. Antihistamines have little effect, however, on nasal blockage.

Diagnosis of summer hay fever is usually straightforward

Terfenadine and astemizole are the most commonly prescribed drugs, are effective, and rarely cause drowsiness or anticholinergic side effects. With these drugs it is important to emphasise the manufacturers’ instructions in view of the extremely rare complication of cardiac arrhythmias in overdose and, in the case of terfenadine, interactions with erythromycin or ketoconazole (which should not be given concurrently).

Newer alternatives include loratadine and fexofenadine. Acrivastine is short acting and may be useful when symptoms are mild and episodic. Cetirizine has also been shown to be highly effective in placebo controlled trials. The place of topical nasal antihistamines in hay fever is currently being evaluated.

Stepwise approach to treatment of summer hay fever

Allergen avoidance (if appropriate)

Mild disease or with occasional symptoms

  • Rapid onset, oral, non-sedating histamine H1 antagonists when the patient is symptomatic; or

  • Antihistamine or cromoglycate topically to eyes or nose, or both

Moderate disease with prominent nasal symptoms

  • Topical nasal steroid daily (start early in the season); plus

  • Antihistamine or cromoglycate topically to eyes

Moderate disease with prominent eye symptoms

  • Oral, non-sedating histamine H1 antagonists daily; or

  • Topical nasal steroid and sodium cromoglycate topically to eyes

If above are ineffective, check compliance and consider

  • Nasal examination

  • Allergy tests

  • Additional pharmacotherapy—for example, short course of oral steroids

  • Immunotherapy (requires referral to specialist)


Topical corticosteroids are extremely potent, with a low potential for systemic side effects. They are the best treatment for patients with moderate to severe nasal symptoms. Aqueous corticosteroids are better tolerated than those in fluorocarbon propellants and have a better local distribution in the nose. The side effects are minor—local irritation and occasional (in 5% of cases) bleeding. Treatment should be started before the beginning of the hay fever season for maximal effect. Patients should be given instruction on the importance of regular treatment and how to use the nasal spray.

Topical corticosteroids are effective against all nasal symptoms, including nasal blockage. Although systemic absorption is negligible in adults, care should be taken when nasal steroids are given to children who are also taking inhaled steroids for asthma or topical steroids for eczema. Sodium cromoglycate two to four times daily is an alternative, particularly in children. Eye drops containing sodium cromoglycate, such as Opticrom, are effective in most patients (often within minutes) for allergic symptoms affecting the eyes.

Effects of drugs on nasal symptoms in adults

Itch or sneezing Discharge Blockage Impaired smell
Topical  corticosteroids +++ +++ ++ +
Oral  antihistamines +++ ++ +/−
Sodium  cromoglycate* + + +/−
Ipratropium  bromide +++
Topical  decongestants +++
Oral  corticosteroids +++ +++ +++ ++

First line treatment in children.

Second line treatment

In patients who fail to respond to antihistamines or topical corticosteroids, a short course of an oral corticosteroid (say, prednisolone 20 mg for five days) may produce rapid relief of symptoms. This is particularly effective when the nose is completely obstructed as topical treatment will not gain access to the nose.

An alternative is to use a topical decongestant short term to allow penetration of topical corticosteroids. Ipratroprium bromide may have a role when watery rhinorrhoea is pronounced.

In general it is important to establish which are the patient’s dominant symptoms and, particularly for severe symptoms, to match the treatment to the symptoms.

Leukotriene receptor antagonists

These medications block the action of leukotrienes – chemical messengers that play an important role in the inflammatory response that happens in the airways. In Germany they have been approved for the treatment of asthma when used in the form of tablets. As well as relieving asthma symptoms, they can also relieve the symptoms of hay fever. So doctors can prescribe leukotriene receptor antagonists for people above the age of 15 who have both asthma and hay fever. Possible side effects include respiratory tract infections (infections of the airways) and headaches.

Chromones (mast cell stabilizers)

Mast cell stabilizers prevent histamine from being released by certain cells in the body known as mast cells. This reduces allergic and inflammatory responses in the body. They are used in the form of nasal sprays, and are usually used to prevent symptoms, but they can also relieve symptoms. Possible side effects include irritation of the membranes lining the nose, and an unpleasant taste in your mouth.

Decongestant (anti-swelling) nose drops and nasal sprays

Decongestant nose drops and nasal sprays reduce swelling in the membranes lining the nose and the sinuses, making it easier to breathe through your nose. They are not suitable for the long-term treatment of allergic rhinitis, though. Although they open your nasal passages and make it easier to breathe, your nose might “get used to“ them after a short while, and then they have the opposite effect: The membranes become swollen again and it’s difficult to breathe through your nose. These medications can also cause side effects like nosebleeds. So it is recommended that these medications not be used for longer than 5 to 7 days.

Avoiding allergens

Patients with allergies are usually advised to avoid the provoking allergen. It is, however, controversial whether this should be routinely recommended for pollen allergy. As hay fever is usually not severe or life threatening, drugs can allow patients to lead a normal life without unnecessary restrictions. But patients with debilitating symptoms may benefit from simple advice. Pollen counts at ground level are highest during the evening and at night, when open grassy spaces should be avoided.

How to avoid pollen

  • Keep windows in cars and buildings shut

  • Wear glasses or sunglasses

  • Avoid open grassy places, particularly in the evening and at night

  • Use a car with a pollen filter

  • Check for pollen counts in the media

  • During the peak season take a holiday by the sea or abroad

Grass pollen immunotherapy

  • Immunotherapy should be considered in patients with summer hay fever uncontrolled by antiallergy drugs

  • It should be administered only in hospital or specialised clinics with immediate access to resuscitative facilities

  • Patients should be kept under observation for the first 60 minutes after injections

  • Patients with asthma should not be given grass pollen immunotherapy

  • Allergen extracts used should be biologically standardised


Most patients with hay fever will have their symptoms controlled by the above measures. Patients whose symptoms remain uncontrolled may benefit from “allergen injection immunotherapy.” This form of treatment is performed only in specialised centres. Careful selection of patients for this treatment is essential, and immunotherapy is contraindicated in those with chronic asthma. Indications and guidelines for immunotherapy in Britain were the subject of a recent report by the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology.

Home Treatment

An individual cannot prevent the development of an allergy, but people who experience hay fever may find some strategies useful for minimizing the impact.

Here are some tips

  • Be aware of the pollen count during susceptible months. Information is available through the internet and other media. Pollen count tends to be higher on humid and windy non-rainy days and during the early evening.
  • Keep windows and doors shut when the pollen count is high.
  • Avoid mowing the lawn during susceptible months, choose low-pollen days for gardening, and keep away from grassy areas when pollen counts are high.
  • Regularly splash the eyes with cool water, to sooth them and clear them of pollen.
  • Shower and change your clothes after coming indoors, when pollen counts are high.
  • Use wrap-around glasses to protect the eyes from pollen.
  • Wear a hat to prevent pollen from collecting in the hair and then sprinkling down onto the eyes and face.
  • Have your car fitted with a pollen filter, and drive with the windows closed at high-count times.
  • Do not have flowers inside your home.
  • Keep all surfaces, floors, and carpets as dust free as possible.
  • Choose a vacuum cleaner with a good filter.
  • Use “mite-proof” bedding.
  • Use a dehumidifier to prevent mold.
  • Keep away from cigarette smoke, and quit, if you are a smoker.
  • Wash pets when they come indoors on a high pollen count day, or smooth their fur down with a damp cloth.
  • Smear Vaseline around the inside edges of your nostrils, as it helps stop pollen from getting through.
  • Ask a physician for a plan, if you know your susceptible time is just around the corner.


How Do I Get Rid of Hay Fever Naturally


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Ultrasound Therapy; Types, Frequency, Medical Uses

Ultrasound Therapy is one of the most widely used physical modalities in the clinical practice of rehabilitation. In particular, therapeutic ultrasound in rehabilitation has a number of uses including the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders such as pain, muscle spasm, joint contracture, and tissue injury,. Therefore, it is now recognized as a major therapeutic method in treating musculoskeletal disorders,,. Essential treatment parameters for therapeutic ultrasound include frequency, intensity, duty cycle, treatment time, and treatment area. The frequency for therapeutic ultrasound ranges from 1 to 3 MHz, with 3 MHz used specifically for the treatment of superficial tissues, and 1 MHz is applied to treat deeper tissues.

Ultrasound therapy is a popular method of treatment for chiropractors, physical therapists, and other medical care providers. It involves transferring sound waves with frequencies greater than the human sound spectrum (above 20 kilohertz) into a patient. The energy that is transferred with the sound waves can be used to treat focused, isolated areas of tissue to help with relieving pain in affected areas of the body and to speed the recovery process for injured muscle or other tissues.

Ultrasound Therapy

Types of Ultrasound Therapy

There are two main types of ultrasound therapy: thermal and mechanical. Both use sound waves generated by a transducer head (which looks a bit like a microphone) to penetrate soft tissues. The difference between the two types of ultrasound therapy is the rate at which the sound waves penetrate the tissues.

  • Thermal ultrasound therapy – Thermal ultrasound therapy uses a more continuous transmission of sound waves. The sound waves cause microscopic vibrations in the deep tissue molecules, increasing heat and friction. The warming effect encourages healing in the soft tissues by increasing the metabolism at the level of the tissue cells.
  • Mechanical ultrasound therapy – Mechanical ultrasound therapy uses pulses of sound waves to penetrate tissues. While this still has a minor warming effect on the tissues, it also causes expansion and contraction in the tiny gas bubbles of the soft tissues. This helps to decrease the inflammatory response, reducing tissue swelling and thus decreasing pain.


  • The number of times a particle experiences a complete compression/rarefaction cycle in 1 second. Typically 1 or 3 MHz.


  • The distance between two equivalent points on the waveform in the particular medium. In an ‘average tissue’ the wavelength @ 1MHz would be 1.5mm and @ 3 MHz would be 0.5 mm.


  • The velocity at which the wave (disturbance) travels through the medium. In a saline solution, the velocity of the US is approximately 1500 msec-1 compared with approximately 350 msec-1 in the air (sound waves can travel more rapidly in a more dense medium). The velocity of the US in most tissues is thought to be similar to that in saline.
  • These three factors are related but are not constant for all types of tissue. Average figures are most commonly used to represent the passage of US in the tissues. Typical US frequencies from therapeutic equipment are 1 and 3 MHz though some machines produce additional frequencies (e.g. 0.75 and 1.5 MHz) and the ‘Longwave’ ultrasound devices operate at several 10’s of kHz (typically 40-50,000Hz – a much lower frequency than ‘traditional US’ but still beyond human hearing range.
  • The wavelength of Ultrasound Therapy – 0.15cm
  • The frequency of Ultrasound Therapy – 1mHz or 3mHz

The intensity of Ultrasound Therapy

  • Low intensity – 0.3watt/cm²
  • Medium intensity – 0.3-1.2watt/cm²
  • High intensity – 1.2-3watt/cm²

Medical Uses of Ultrasound Therapy

Relatively high power ultrasound can break up stony deposits or tissue, accelerate the effect of drugs in a targeted area, assist in the measurement of the elastic properties of tissue, and can be used to sort cells or small particles for research.

  • Focused high-energy ultrasound pulses can be used to break calculi such as kidney stones and gallstones into fragments small enough to be passed from the body without undue difficulty, a process known as lithotripsy.
  • Cleaning teeth in dental hygiene.
  • Focused ultrasound sources may be used for cataract treatment by phacoemulsification.
  • Ultrasound can ablate tumors or other tissue non-invasively. This is accomplished using a technique known as High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU), also called focused ultrasound surgery (FUS surgery). This procedure uses generally lower frequencies than medical diagnostic ultrasound (250–2000 kHz), but significantly higher time-averaged intensities. The treatment is often guided by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI); the combination is then referred to as Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS).
Enhanced drug uptake using acoustic targeted drug delivery(ATDD).
  • Delivering chemotherapy to brain cancer cells and various drugs to other tissues is called acoustic targeted drug delivery (ATDD).[rx] These procedures generally use high-frequency ultrasound (1–10 MHz) and a range of intensities (0–20 W/cm2). The acoustic energy is focused on the tissue of interest to agitate its matrix and make it more permeable for therapeutic drugs.[rx][rx]
  • Ultrasound has been used to trigger the release of anti-cancer drugs from delivery vectors including liposomes, polymeric microspheres and self-assembled polymeric.[rx]
  • Ultrasound is essential to the procedures of ultrasound-guided sclerotherapy and endovenous laser treatment for the non-surgical treatment of varicose veins.
  • Ultrasound-assisted lipectomy is Liposuction assisted by ultrasound.

A listing of FDA approved modes for ultrasound therapy.

Therapy Method Therapeutic Outcome Bioeffect Mechanism Device Characteristics General Reference
Applicator Frequency Delivery
Unfocused beam tissue warming heating portable hand-held 1–3 MHZ continuous or repeated bursts
Hyperthermia cancer therapy regional heating multi-element applicator 1–3.4 MHz 1 hour [rx]
HIFU uterine fibroid ablation thermal lesion computer directed 0.5–2 MHZ long bursts
HIFU glaucoma relief permeabilization fixed probe with waterbath 4.6 MHZ 1–3 s
HIFU laproscopic tissue ablation thermal lesion hand-held 4 MHz long bursts
HIFU laparoscopic or open surgery thermal lesion hand-held 3.8–6.4 MHz long bursts
Focused ultrasound skin tissue tightening thermal lesion hand-held, imaging and treatment 4.4–7.5 MHz 20–50 ms bursts
Extracorporeal Lithotripsy kidney stone comminution mechanical stress; cavitation mainframe with image guidance ~150 kHz shockwaves
Intracorporeal lithotripsy kidney stone comminution mechanical stress; cavitation Percutaneous probes 25 kHz continuous
Extracorporeal shockwave therapy plantar fasciitis epicondylitis unknown mainframe with the applicator head ~150 kHz shockwaves
Phacoemulsification lens removal vibration; cavitation generator with probe 40 kHz continuous
US-assisted liposuction adipose tissue removal fat liquefaction; cavitation generator with probe 20–30 kHz continuous
Tissue cutting and vessel sealing laparoscopic or open surgery thermal lesion, vibration hand-held 55.5 kHz continuous
The intravascular US thrombus dissolution unknown; gas body activation intravascular catheter 2.2 MHZ continuous
Skin permeabilization transdermal drug delivery unknown hand held 55 kHz continuous
Low intensity pulsed US bone fracture healing unknown attached transducer 1.5 MHz pulsed, long duration


Ultrasound Therapy


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 Mobile Phones/Cell Phones; Harmful Effects of Cellphones in Your Brain

Mobile Phones/Cell Phones  is the fundamental element in every moment or second in our life. But this most useable phone has some health effect that are always ignores. If we become careful  to use  mobile phone , we can safe from the electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range (450–3800 MHz and 24-80GHz in 5G mobile). Other digital wireless systems, such as data communication networks, produce similar radiation.

Because mobile phone use is so widespread (it was estimated in 2011 that there were around five billion mobile phone users), public concerns about the possible health effects of mobile phones receive a lot of coverage in the media. Because so many people use mobile phones, medical researchers are concerned that any associated health risks, even small ones, could cause significant public health problems.

The World Health Organization states that “A large number of studies have been performed over the last two decades to assess whether mobile phones pose a potential health risk. To date, no adverse health effects have been established as being caused by mobile phone use.” In a 2018 statement, the FDA said that “the current safety limits are set to include a 50-fold safety margin from observed effects of radiofrequency energy exposure”.

The effect of mobile phone radiation on human health is a subject of interest and study worldwide, as a result of the enormous increase in mobile phone usage throughout the world. As of 2015, there were 7.4 billion subscriptions worldwide, though the actual number of users is lower as many users own more than one mobile phone. Mobile phones use electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range (450–3800 MHz and 24-80GHz in 5G mobile). Other digital wireless systems, such as data communication networks, produce similar radiation.

The World Health Organization states that “A large number of studies have been performed over the last two decades to assess whether mobile phones pose a potential health risk. To date, no adverse health effects have been established as being caused by mobile phone use. In a 2018 statement, the FDA said that “the current safety limits are set to include a 50-fold safety margin from observed effects of radiofrequency energy exposure.

Types  Mobile Phones/Cell Phones

Radiation is classified into two broad groups

  • Ionising radiation (IR) – which is capable of causing changes in atoms or molecules in the body that can result in tissue damage such as cancer. Examples of IR include x-rays and gamma rays
  • Non-ionising radiation (NIR) – which doesn’t cause these changes, but can prompt molecules to vibrate. This can lead to rises in temperature, as well as other effects. Examples of NIR include ultraviolet radiation in sunlight, visible light, light bulbs, infrared radiation, microwave energy and radiofrequency energy.

Harmful Effects of  Mobile Phones/Cell Phones

An increasing dependence on smartphones leads to the fear of missing out and the need to constantly stay connected. This causes stress and anxiety. Prolonged use of your phone can cause depression, lower your concentration, and hamper your academic performance. It also hampers your vision, worsens your posture, and disrupt sleep.

We live in a world full of people who are, more often than not, glued to their cell phones. In fact, most of us are so attached to these devices that we feel restless the moment we part from it, even if it’s just to use the washroom. And if you find yourself relating to this, there’s a good chance that you’re addicted to your smartphone. This dependency on smartphones comes with a range of harmful effects. But before dive into them, we’ve listed out a few symptoms of smartphone addiction that you should know of.

How Bad Is Your Cell Phone Addiction?

On an average, a smartphone user in the age group of 18–44 spends at least 2 hours a day communicating via text or social media on the phone. Almost 80% of these people check their phones every 15 minutes! Be it in the hopes of getting a text, drawn by the curiosity of who’s contacting them, or even just boredom, this behavior is alarming.1

Cell phone addiction induces particular behaviors in people. The dependence is so high and common that most people tend to display all or most of the following negative behaviors:

  • Anxiety, impatience, and stress when unable to get a response or send a reply instantly
  • Irritability and feelings of being lost when away from their phones for too long
  • Repeatedly interrupting social or professional situations by checking the phone
  • Forgetfulness caused by absent-mindedness and a lack of focus due to overt engagement with phones
  • Postponing sleep to give in to the pressing need of texting or being present on social media for long and late hours
  • Loss of productivity and inability to engage in fruitful activities

These behaviors can be seen in cell phone users of all age groups, including students at the secondary school level. A 2015 study discovered unhealthy cell phone dependence in 31.33% of the sample students in the age group of 14–18. It also highlighted that constant access to information from across the globe made it harder for curious minds to stay away from the gadget for too long. When such a separation was initiated, participants displayed obvious withdrawal symptoms like “craving” for their phone and losing interest in other activities.3

Obsessive use of cell phones can hamper the overall well-being of a person in more ways than one. The very act of frequent texting can be exhaustive at an emotional level, leading to disorientation and fatigue. With the ease of communication, there is a constant pressure to be available at all times and this has a direct impact on everyday life. So we have a reckoner of all the effects of cell phone addiction.

1. Causes Stress, Anxiety, And Depression

A few studies have linked excessive smartphone use to alcohol addiction, smoking, and aggressive behavior. This could be attributed to mental-health complications such as low self-esteem and depression that come with smartphone dependency.

Due to the need to be connected all the time, researchers have found that people are in a constant state of anxiety when it comes to cell phone use. In fact, the heart rate of test subjects increased significantly when their phones were taken away from them and they could hear the notifications from afar. And this phone-induced anxiety operates on a positive feedback loop, i.e, it can only be relieved by looking at the phone and using it. This could be caused due to the fear of missing out and the need to have access to information constantly. It’s no wonder then that experts are blaming excessive smartphone use for high levels of stress and anxiety, especially in school- and college-going individuals. The long-term effects of both stress and anxiety include chronic mental health problems and physical ailments.

Inability to cope with stress and anxiety could lead to a sense of hopelessness that could trigger depression. Studies have found that screen time upwards of 2 hours can trigger suicidal tendencies in children regardless of the kind of content they’re consuming.

2. Disrupts Sleep Patterns

Gone are the days when teens used to fall asleep with a book in their hands. Now, it is relatively common if your smartphone is the last thing you look at before bed and the first thing you look at the moment you wake up. Studies have indicated that long periods of exposure to short-wavelength light (such as the one from smartphones) causes adolescent sleep to become irregular, short, and delayed. And since most schools and workplaces require individuals to wake up early in the day, the circadian rhythm gets disrupted. It’s important to note that circadian rhythm determines not just sleep-wake cycles but also hormone release, eating habits and digestion, body temperature, and other important bodily functions. Hence, your smartphone use isn’t just disrupting your sleeping patterns but also your overall health.

3. Lowers Attention, Concentration, And Academic Performance

Smartphones might be the bane of your grades at school. Research has found that just the presence of smartphones around us can cause our concentration and attention levels to dip. This holds true even when people try and avoid the temptation to check their phones. In the educational sphere, this translates to a lowered understanding of new learning material and comprehension, especially if smartphones are used while something is being taught.

Researchers note that this happens due to the awareness of a missed text message and call or an unchecked notification which remains predominant in the mind of the individual, taking away any attention from the task at hand. In addition to this, individuals who hear their phones ring while being separated from them have shown a decreased enjoyment of the task at hand due to being preoccupied by phone-related thoughts.

4. Worsens Posture

We’re almost always looking into our phones and this can negatively affect our posture. Studies have noted that the typical forward neck posture that people have when they’re on their phones can, in the long run, cause injury to the structure of the cervical and lumbar spine as well as the ligaments. This, in turn, could lead to changes in the form and biomechanics of the rib cage (under which the lung contracts and expands), leading to problems with breathing. Due to this, bad posture is linked to respiratory issues.

5. Strains Vision

Besides affecting your vision, prolonged smartphone use can cause irritation, dryness, and redness in your eyes.

Excessive smartphone use could send you straight to the eyewear store for a pair of prescription glasses or a box of contact lenses. In fact, it turns out that most of us aren’t fully aware of the possible effects of digital eye strain. Research has found that excessive strain on the eyes from screen time can result in myopia or near-sightedness, especially in people who read books or long texts on their phones. Phones also give off HEV or blue light which, as we’d mentioned earlier, contain the shortest wavelengths that carry the largest potential to cause harm to living tissue, which in this case, would be the eyes, especially the retina. And according to a statistics, more than 83 percent of Americans report using digital devices for more than two hours per day, and 53.1 percent report using two digital devices simultaneously, with 60.5 percent reporting experiencing symptoms of digital eye strain. It shouldn’t come as a surprise, then, that more and more people complain of headaches and eyesight issues in today’s times.

6. Might Increase The Risk Of Cancer

Cancer is one of the biggest concerns that people have when talking or reading about excessive cell phone use and their cause for concern could be valid. Cell phones emit radio waves which can be absorbed by the tissues that are close to the area of contact. This form of radiation is possibly carcinogenic, although further studies have to be conducted to understand the full extent of its effects. It is also possible that children are at more risk than adults to be affected by the radiation as their nervous systems might be still developing. The American Cancer Society (ACS) recommends individuals who are concerned about radio frequency exposure to “limit their exposure, including using an earpiece and limiting cell phone use, particularly among children.”13 14

Tips To Break Free From Cell Phone Addiction

In order to break free from the negative impacts of cell phone overuse, it is important to make a few lifestyle changes. Here are a few of them:

  • Set aside a certain amount of time every day where you completely stay away from your phone.
  • Keep your phone away from your bed and use an actual alarm clock to wake up on time.
  • Turn your phone off before you start driving.
  • Reduce the amount of time you spend on texting. Instead, engage in more face-to-face conversations by turning off the notifications.
  • Ask a loved one to discipline you if you find it difficult to stay away from your phone for long.
  • Take up a new hobby and spend your time in a more productive way.
  • Take a twenty-second break every twenty minutes and look at something twenty feet away to reduce digital eye strain.


  1.  “Electromagnetic fields and public health: mobile phones”. World Health Organization. October 2014. Retrieved 2017-01-12.
  2. “Press Announcements – Statement from Jeffrey Shuren, M.D., J.D., director of the FDA’s Center for Devices and Radiological Health on the recent National Toxicology Program draft report on radiofrequency energy exposure”.

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