Ipratropium; Indications/Uses, Dosage, Side Effects, Drug Interaction ,Pregnancy

Ipratropium; Indications/Uses, Dosage, Side Effects, Drug Interaction ,Pregnancy

Ipratropium is a synthetic derivative of the alkaloid atropine with anticholinergic properties. Ipratropium antagonizes the actions of acetylcholine at parasympathetic postganglionic effector cell junctions. When inhaled, ipratropium binds competitively to cholinergic receptors in the bronchial smooth muscle thereby blocking the bronchoconstrictor actions of the acetylcholine (Ach) mediated vagal impulses. Inhibition of the vagal tone leads to dilation of the large central airways resulting in bronchodilation.

Ipratropium bromide is a bronchodilator that dilates (enlarges) airways (bronchi) in the lungs. It is used in treating, symptoms of asthma, colds, allergies, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) due to emphysema or chronic bronchitis. Ipratropium blocks the effect of acetylcholine on airways (bronchi) and nasal passages. Acetylcholine is a chemical that nerves use to communicate with muscle cells.

Ipratropium is a synthetic anticholinergic agent that is used as an inhalant for treatment of acute bronchospasm due to chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Ipratropium has not been implicated in causing liver enzyme elevations or clinically apparent acute liver injury.

Mechanism of Action of Ipratropium

Ipratropium bromide is an anticholinergic agent. It blocks muscarinic cholinergic receptors, without specificity for subtypes, resulting in a decrease in the formation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). Most likely due to actions of cGMP on intracellular calcium, this results in decreased contractility of smooth muscle.

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Ipratropium is a synthetic derivative of the alkaloid atropine with anticholinergic properties. Ipratropium antagonizes the actions of acetylcholine at parasympathetic postganglionic effector cell junctions. When inhaled, ipratropium binds competitively to cholinergic receptors in the bronchial smooth muscle thereby blocking the bronchoconstrictor actions of the acetylcholine (Ach) mediated vagal impulses. Inhibition of the vagal tone leads to dilation of the large central airways resulting in bronchodilation.

Indications of Ipratropium

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Contra-Indications of Ipratropium

  • closed angle glaucoma
  • Blockage of Urinary Bladder
  • Enlarged Prostate
  • Cannot Empty Bladder
Allergies
  • Anticholinergics – Quaternary
  • Ipratropium Analogues

Dosage of Ipratropium

Strengths: 500 mcg/2.5 mL; 18 mcg/inh; 17 mcg/inh

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

  • Inhalation aerosol: 2 inhalations (34 mcg) orally four times a day, or as needed up to 12 inhalations in 24 hours
  • Nebulizer inhalation solution: 500 mcg three or four times a day by oral nebulization, with doses 6 to 8 hours apart.

Pediatric Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Nebulizer inhalation solution

  • Less than 12 years: Safety has not been established.
  • 12 years or older: 500 mcg three or four times a day by oral nebulization, with doses 6 to 8 hours apart.

Side Effects of Ipratropium

The most common

More common

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Rare

Drug Interactions of Ipratropium

Ipratropium bromide may interact with the following drugs, supplements & may change the efficacy of drugs

Pregnancy Catagory of Ipratropium

FDA Pregnancy Category B

Pregnancy

This medication should not be used during pregnancy unless the benefits outweigh the risks. If you become pregnant while using this medication, contact your doctor immediately.

Lactation 

It is not known if ipratropium nasal spray passes into breast milk. If you are a breast-feeding mother and are using this medication, it may affect your baby. Talk to your doctor about whether you should continue breast-feeding.The safety and effectiveness of using this medication have not been established for children under 12 years of age.

References

  1. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.go

 

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