Cina is a widely distributed protein in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It is associated with natural competence and is proposed to have a function as an enzyme participating in the pyridine nucleotide cycle, which recycles products formed by non-redox uses of NAD. Here we report the determination of the crystal structure of CinA from Thermus thermophilus, in complex with several ligands. CinA was shown to have both nicotinamide mononucleotide deamidase and ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase activities. The crystal structure shows an unusual asymmetric dimer, with three domains for each chain; the C-terminal domain harbors the nicotinamide mononucleotide deamidase activity, and the structure of a complex with the product nicotinate mononucleotide suggests a mechanism for deamidation. The N-terminal domain belongs to the COG1058 family and is associated with the ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase activity. The asymmetry in the CinA dimer arises from two alternative orientations of the COG1058 domains, only one of which forms a contact with the KH-type domain from the other chain, effectively closing the active site into, we propose, a catalytically competent state. Structures of complexes with Mg2+/ADP-ribose, Mg2+/ATP, and Mg2+/AMP suggest a mechanism for the ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase reaction that involves a rotation of the COG1058 domain dimer as part of the reaction cycle, so that each active site oscillates between open and closed forms, thus promoting catalysis.
Root-knot disease of mulberry is caused by the nematode Meloidogyne incognita. It has important economic implications for sericulture. The homeopathic medicines, Cina mother tincture (MT) and potentised Cina 200C, prepared from the flowering meristems of Artemisia nilagirica (Clarke) Pamp, were applied by foliar spray on mulberry (Morus alba L.) infected with M. incognita juveniles (J2). Pretreatment (ending 6 days before inoculation) and post-treatment (starting 6 days after inoculation) schedules were tested. The two uninoculated control batches were treated with the same procedure with Cina MT and Cina 200C. Both pre- and post-treatment significantly reduced nematode infection in terms of root gall number and nematode population in the root. All the treated plants showed improved growth in terms of fresh biomass of shoot and root, length of shoot and root, number of leaves, leaf surface area, root, and leaf-protein content. Cina 200C is more effective than Cina MT in all respects of nematode control as well as the growth of the test plants. Pretreatments show slightly better effects than the post-treatment. It is interesting that inoculated and treated plants not only are less affected by nematodes but also have a better growth than uninoculated, untreated control.
Indications/ Uses of Cina
- The unexpended flower-heads (commonly called “seeds”) of several varieties of Artemisia maritima. Semen cine.
- Flores cine.
- Artemisia Cintra. Wormseed. N. O. Composite. Tincture.
- Abdomen, distended
- Anus, irritation
- A cough
- Intermittent fever
- Remittent fever
- Mind – Lachrymose and plaintive humor. A child cries when it is touched is averse to being caressed. Continual inquietude, with desire for things of all kinds, which are rejected some moment after. Disposition to be offended by trifling jests. Great anguish and anxiety on walking in the open air.
- Head – a Headache, alternately with pressure on the abdomen. Numbing pressure, as from a load, which weighs upon the head, especially when walking in the open air. The head falls to the side and is jerked backward, with twitches in the limbs and cold perspiration of the face. Tearing, drawing cephalalgia, aggravated by reading or meditation. A headache before and after the epileptic attacks, after an attack of intermittent fever. Dull pains in the head, with eyes fatigued, chiefly on waking in the morning. Cold perspiration on the head (forehead) and on the pale, cold, bloated face, with blueness around the mouth, twitching of the limbs and sleepiness, worse at night (after attacks of whooping-cough and epilepsy)
- Eyes – Aching in the eyes, when fatiguing them by reading, when using them at night by the candle-light. Convulsive movements of the muscles of the eyebrows. Confusion of sight, on reading, which disappears on rubbing the eyes. Pupils dilated. The weakness of sight (from onanism). Weak sight, with photophobia and pressure on the eyes, as if sand had been introduced into them. When looking at a thing steadily (reading) he sees it as through a gauze, which is relieved by wiping the eyes.
- Nose – Epistaxis, also bleeding from the mouth. Inclination to put the fingers into the nose. The child rubs the nose constantly and bores with the fingers in the nose until blood comes out. The flow of pus from the nose. Violent sneezing, which provokes a sensation of pressure on the temples, and seems as though it would burst the chest. Fluent coryza, with the sensation of burning in the nostrils. Stoppage of the nose, in the evening. Fluent coryza at noon.
- Face – Paleness of face, with a livid circle under the eyes. Earth-colored complexion. Face, puffed and bluish, especially around the mouth. Face alternately pale and cold, or red and hot. Pale, cold face, with cold perspiration. Cramp-like pains and successive pullings in the cheek-bones, aggravated or renewed by contact and pressure
- Teeth – A toothache, provoked by the air and cold drinks Pains, as from excoriation, in the teeth. Grinding of the teeth.
- Mouth – Sensation of dryness and roughness of the mouth, especially of the palate.
- Throat – Inability to swallow, especially liquids
- Appetite – Increase of thirst. Hunger shortly after a meal. The version of the sucking child to the milk of its mother. Hunger may come on in the middle of the night, as in children, or one may feel hungry a few minutes after a hearty meal. The bitter taste of bread. Vomiting, or diarrhea immediately after eating or drinking, especially drinking. Vomiting of mucus and of ascarids. Vomiting during the fever, with tongue clean. Bilious vomiting. Disagreeable risings
- Stomach – Audible gurgling from the throat into the stomach when drinking. Frequent hiccough. Pain in the precordial region oppressing the breathing.
- Abdomen – Obstinate pinchings in the abdomen. Pinching or cramp-like pressure transversely across the upper abdomen, after a meal. Painful twisting about navel. Cutting and pinching pain in the abdomen from worms. Painful rolling in the region of the navel, which is very sensitive to the touch. Cramp-like, frequently recurring pains in the abdomen, as when the catamenia are about to appear. Unpleasant sensation of warmth in the abdomen. Bloated abdomen, especially in children. Feeling of emptiness in the abdomen.
- Stool and Anus – Stool with maw-worms (short, thick worms). Loose evacuations of the consistency of pap. Discharge of ascarides, and of other worms by the anus. Itching of the anus. Diarrhea of bile, and of stercoraceous matter. Loose, involuntary, whitish evacuations.
- Urinary Organs – Frequent want to make water, with profuse discharge. Wetting the bed. Urine soon becomes turbid. Involuntary emission of urine (at night).
- Respiratory Organs – Short, interrupted breathing. Respiration wheezing and panting. The abundance of mucus in the larynx, which is constant, and compels continual hawking. Gagging cough in the morning after rising, irritation thereto (as from dust), is renewed by inspiration after a long interval. A cough, excited by taking a deep inspiration. Dry, tickling cough induced by reading (to oneself). Hoarse, transient cough in the evening. A dry cough, with cramp, want of breath, anxiety, paleness of face, and groans after the paroxysm, or with the stiffness of the body, and bleeding from the nose and mouth. A cough, with sudden starts, and loss of consciousness. Before coughing, child raises herself suddenly, tosses wildly about, the whole body becomes stiff, she loses consciousness, just as if she would have an epileptic fit, then follows a cough.
- Chest – Difficulty of respiration, and anxious oppression of the chest, as if the sternum were compressing the lungs. Respiration short often interrupted or rattling. Spasmodic digging in the chest, as if it were going to burst. Jerking and digging shootings in the chest. Burning, stitches, and soreness in the chest.
- Back – Pains, as from a bruise, in the loins, worse by motion. Drawing-tearing pain along the whole spine. Drawing or jerking pains in the middle of the spine.
- Upper Limbs – Tearing and paralytic pullings in the arms. Cramp-like tearings in the arms and in the hands. Contraction and start of the hand and of the fingers. The sprained feeling in the wrist-joint. The weakness of the hand, which suffers everything to escape from it.
- Lower Limbs – Paralytic or cramp-like pains, and pullings in the legs. Spasmodic stretching and twitching of the feet. Cramp-like extension of the legs.
Side Effects of Cina
Major & minor side effects for Cina 250 MG Tablet
- Abdominal pain
- White patches in the mouth or on the tongue
- Joint pain
- Black or tarry stools
- Fever with chills
- Chest tightness
- Ringing or buzzing in the ears
- Muscle pain
- Numbness of the hands
- Swelling of face, lips, eyelids, tongue, hands, and feet
- A Runny Nose
Dosage of Cina
- Cina 250 MG Tablet
- Missed Dose – Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose. Do not double your dose to make up for the missed one.
- Overdose – Seek emergency medical treatment or contact the doctor in case of an overdose.
Drug Interactions of Cina
- Interaction with alcohol is unknown. It is advisable to consult your doctor before consumption.
- Interaction with alcohol is unknown. It is advisable to consult your doctor before consumption.
- Ethinyl Estradiol
- Antidiabetic medicines