Orange fruit is the fruit of the citrus species in the family Rutaceae. It is also called sweet orange, to distinguish it from the related referred to as bitter orange. The sweet orange reproduces asexually (apomixis through nucellar embryony); varieties of sweet orange arise through mutations.
Types of Orange Fruit
Other citrus groups also are known as oranges are:
- Mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata) – is an original species of citrus, and is a progenitor of the common orange.
- Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) – also known as Seville orange, sour orange (especially when used as rootstock for a sweet orange tree), bigarade orange and marmalade orange. Like the sweet orange, it is a pomelo x mandarin hybrid but arose from a distinct hybridization event.
- Bergamot orange (Citrus bergamia Risso) – grown mainly in Italy for its peel, producing a primary essence for perfumes, also used to flavor Earl Grey tea. It is a hybrid of bitter orange x lemon.
- Trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata) – sometimes included in the genus (classified as Citrus trifoliata). It often serves as a rootstock for sweet orange trees and other Citrus cultivars.
Nutritional Value of Orange fruit
|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||197 kJ (47 kcal)|
|Dietary fiber||2.4 g|
|Pantothenic acid (B5)||
|†Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
Orange Fruit Health Benefits
- Anti-oxidants – Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically derived from oxygen such as superoxide anion, hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide in living organisms by the number of metabolism pathways, while an anti-oxidant system is able to defend against it to keep balance . However, modern lifestyle involves a number of factors that may raise the level of ROS which plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of various diseases such as aging, arthritis, cancer, inflammation, and heart disease, and cause oxidative stress. Citrus extracts such as Citrus Karna peel extracts, Citrus limetta peel extracts, and Citrus bergamia juice extracts were found to have potential antioxidant bioactivity [4–5]. Citrus fruits are reported to have a good anti-oxidant ability especially because of their phenolic compounds with poly-hydroxyl groups, including phenolic acids, flavonoids and their derivatives . Because of direct absorption and neutralization of free radicals . Inhibition of enzymes associated with ROS pathways: NADPH oxidase, xanthine oxidase and myeloperoxidase . Enhancement of the activities of human anti-oxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, catalase, etc. .
- Anti-cancer – Citrus fruits are high in secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, limonoids, and coumarins, which are associated with a reduced risk of cancer, including gastric cancer, breast cancer, lung tumorigenesis, colonic tumorigenesis, hepatocarcinogenesis, and hematopoietic malignancies, etc. [11–12] Chang and Jia found Ougan (Citrus reticulata cv. Suavissima) flavedo extract exhibited potential anti-tumor effects by its inhibitory effect on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and interfering with the canonical TGF-β1-SMAD-Snail/Slug axis .
- Anti-inflammatory – Inflammation is a very complex response that is mediated by inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 as well as a cascade of molecular mediators including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), which are all closely regulated by the organism. And these inflammatory cytokines are active in the pathogenesis of various chronic inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and colon cancer . Orange (C. Aurantium L.) peel extract was found to suppress UVB-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production in HaCaT cells and acted as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-c agonist . Flavonoids, coumarin and volatile oil from Citrus fruit are showing anti-inflammatory activity, which can be used as the supplement to protect against or ameliorate this chronic inflammatory diseases.
- Impact on blood glucose – FlavonoidsCitrus flavonoids (hesperidin, naringin, neohesperidin, and nobiletin) significantly inhibited amylase-catalyzed starch digestion. Moreover, naringin and neohesperidin mainly inhibited amylose digestion, whereas hesperidin and nobiletin inhibited both amylose and amylopectin digestion. These results demonstrated that Citrus flavonoids play important roles in preventing the progression of hyperglycemia, partly by binding to starch, increasing hepatic glycolysis and the glycogen concentration, and lowering hepatic gluconeogenesis . Hesperidin, naringin, and nobiletin also exhibited antidiabetic activities, partly by lowering hepatic gluconeogenesis or improving insulin sensitivity in diabetic animals . A study suggested that naringenin conferred protection against experimental diabetes through its antihyperglycemic and anti-oxidant properties in streptozotocin–nicotinamide-induced experimental diabetic rats . In vivo chronic treatment of diabetic rats with naringenin could prevent the functional changes in vascular reactivity in diabetic rats through a NO-dependent and prostaglandin-independent pathway .
- Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) – Vitamin C, or ascorbic acid, serves in humans as a co-factor in several important enzyme reactions and is necessary for the synthesis of collagen . Due to the incapacity to synthesize vitamin C, humans require it from natural sources through supplements to the ordinary diet. Lack of vitamin C results in scurvy, a pathological condition characterized by friable vessels, especially in capillary tissues that are most likely to rupture, and also petechial hemorrhages and ecchymosis due to a deficit of collagen synthesis and secretion to form the extracellular matrix or part of the basement membrane . The vitamin C content of red oranges is in the range of 32 to 42 mg per 100 mL, with the highest levels found in the Sanguinellovarieties, followed by Cara Cara navels and Moro (the US recommended daily allowance for vitamin C is set at 75 mg for women and 90 mg for men) .
- Preventing high blood pressure – Drinking sweet orange juice seems to help lower the risk of high blood pressure. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) allows makers of sweet orange products that provide at least 350 mg of potassium per serving and are low in sodium, saturated fat, and cholesterol to make label claims that their product might reduce the risk of developing high blood pressure.
- High cholesterol – Drinking sweet orange juice seems to help improve cholesterol levels. In large amounts (750 mL, or about three 8-oz glasses, per day for four weeks), sweet orange juice seems to increase “good” high-density lipoprotein and reduce the ratio of “bad” low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to HDL cholesterol in people with high cholesterol.
- Preventing stroke – Drinking sweet orange juice seems to help lower the risk of stroke. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) allows makers of sweet orange products that provide at least 350 mg of potassium per serving and are low in sodium, saturated fat, and cholesterol to make label claims that their product might reduce the risk of stroke.
- Preventing prostate cancer – Higher dietary intake of sweet orange juice is not linked with a decreased risk of prostate cancer.
- Asthma – There is some evidence that sweet orange and other fruits that are rich in vitamin C might improve lung function in people with asthma. But not all studies agree.
- Colds – Some research shows that drinking 180 mL (about 6 ounces) of sweet orange juice daily might help prevent symptoms of the common cold.
- Constipation – Good fiber levels can stimulate peristaltic motion and improve your general digestive efficiency, preventing symptoms of constipation.
- Eye Health – The presence of flavonoids in oranges helps improve vision health. These antioxidants and many vitamins are linked to a lower risk of eye diseases like macular degeneration, which mostly occurs with old age.
- Kidney stones (nephrolithiasis) – Some research reports that drinking 400 mL of sweet orange juice (about 13 ounces) increases the amount of citrate in the urine. This might help to prevent kidney stones that are made of calcium.
- Obesity – Early research shows that drinking red sweet orange juice might reduce cholesterol levels and blood pressure in people who are overweight or obese. But it does not reduce body weight or improve blood sugar levels.
- Stress – Early research shows that smelling sweet orange essential oil during a stressful task might reduce anxiety and tension.
- You can mix the above scrub with milk and milk cream and apply it on your face. This will provide an instant glow to your face as well as reduce dark spots and blemishes on your skin.
- Orange peels contain abundant amounts of vitamin C and antioxidants which maintain the oils of the skin. They are suitable for both oily and dry skin.
- Topical application of orange peels on skin removes dead cells and dirt as well as keeps the skin moisturized and toned. Orange peels have a higher content of vitamin C than the fruit itself. Instead of throwing away the peels, you can dry them in the sun and grind them to prepare orange peel powder. This can be used as a body scrub.
- Oranges contain powerful antioxidants which fight off oxygen free radicals These free radicals often cause wrinkles and sagging of cheeks.
- Dilute the orange peel paste while creating the face mask because they contain a lot of citric acids which might irritate your skin. Calcium contributes to antioxidant production, thus reversing dry skin and providing the appearance of a healthy and glowing skin. Excess dirt, soot or bacteria block your skin pores, resulting in the occurrence of pimples.
- Orange peels are a natural bleaching agent that can lighten dark blotches on the skin and effectively remove them with time. They help in reducing suntans by deflecting harmful UV rays from attacking skin cells.
- Oranges are a rich source of vitamin C which improves the skin texture and color.
- It also helps in restoring collagen in your body which is responsible for skin firming and prevents premature aging of the skin.
- You can make a refreshing face spray using orange peels. Oranges have a high content of citric acid which is effective in drying away acne. Orange peels contain a high amount of dietary fiber, which regulates bowel movements, thus eliminating harmful wastes and toxins from the body. This will prevent acne breakouts by getting rid of toxins. You can prepare a face mask by grinding orange peels to make a paste and apply it all over your face. This will not only keep acne at bay but also combat skin oiliness. With regular usage, you can see a visible reduction in pimples and its marks.
- Apply this paste on your face, using gentle circular motions and wash off with warm water after 15 minutes. This is not only a natural and non-painful way of getting rid of blackheads but also unclogs excess oils and dirt clogged within skin pores.
- You can prepare this mask by mixing one part yogurt with orange peel powder to make a thick paste.
- Orange peel mask is quite effective in extracting blackheads out of your skin
- Eating disorders.
- Cancerous breast sores.