Cefoxitin; Indications/Uses, Dosage, Side Effects, Interactions

Cefoxitin; Indications/Uses, Dosage, Side Effects, Interactions

Cefoxitin is a semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, second-generation cephalosporin with antibacterial activity. Cefoxitin binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. PBPs are enzymes involved in the terminal stages of assembling the bacterial cell wall and in reshaping the cell wall during growth and division. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity. This results in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall and causes cell lysis.[Pubchem]

Mechanism of action of Cefoxitin

The bactericidal action of cefoxitin results from inhibition of cell wall synthesis. Cefoxitin is a cephamycin antibiotic often grouped with the second-generation cephalosporins. It is active against a broad range of gram-negative bacteria including anaerobes. The methoxy group in the 7a position provides cefoxitin with a high degree of stability in the presence of beta-lactamases, both penicillinases, and cephalosporinases, of gram-negative bacteria. Cefoxitin is a semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, second-generation cephalosporin with antibacterial activity. Cefoxitinbinds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. PBPs are enzymes involved in the terminal stages of assembling the bacterial cell wall and in reshaping the cell wall during growth and division. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity. This results in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall and causes cell lysis.

Indications of Cefoxitin

  • Abscess, Intra-Abdominal
  • For the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible strains microorganisms.
  • Lower respiratory tract infections, including pneumonia and lung abscess,s
  •  Urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species,
  • Intra-abdominal infections, including peritonitis and intra-abdominal abscess,
  • Gynecological infections, including endometritis, pelvic cellulitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease caused
  • Bacterial Infections
  • Bloodstream Infections
  • Bone and Joint Infections
  • Aspiration Pneumonia Cesarean Section
  • Bronchitis
  • Tonsillitis
  • Endometritis
  • Flu caused by Influenza
  • Infected animal bite
  • Intra-Abdominal Infections
  • Lower respiratory tract infection bacterial
  • Peritonitis
  • Pneumonia
  • Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Bacterial Infections
  • Skin and skin structure infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus
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Contra-Indications of Cefoxitin

  • Clostridium difficile infection
  • The decrease in the blood-clotting protein prothrombin
  • Severe renal impairment
  • Inadequate vitamin K
  • Hemolytic anemia
  • Liver problems
  • Interstitial nephritis
  • Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Allergies cephalosporins & beta-lactams

Dosage of Cefoxitin

Strengths: 1 g; 2 g; 10 g; 1 g/50 mL; 2 g/50 mL

Aspiration Pneumonia

  • Uncomplicated infections (bacteremia is absent or unlikely): 1 g IV every 6 to 8 hours
  • Moderately severe or severe infections: 1 g IV every 4 hours or 2 g IV every 6 to 8 hours
  • Severe, life-threatening infections: 2 g IV every 4 hours or 3 g IV every 6 hours

Intraabdominal Infection

  • Uncomplicated infections (bacteremia is absent or unlikely): 1 g IV every 6 to 8 hours
  • Moderately severe or severe infections: 1 g IV every 4 hours or 2 g IV every 6 to 8 hours
  • Severe, life-threatening infections: 2 g IV every 4 hours or 3 g IV every 6 hours

Joint Infection

  • Uncomplicated infections (bacteremia is absent or unlikely): 1 g IV every 6 to 8 hours
  • Moderately severe or severe infections: 1 g IV every 4 hours or 2 g IV every 6 to 8 hours
  • Severe, life-threatening infections: 2 g IV every 4 hours or 3 g IV every 6 hours.

Pneumonia

  • Uncomplicated infections (bacteremia is absent or unlikely): 1 g IV every 6 to 8 hours
  • Moderately severe or severe infections: 1 g IV every 4 hours or 2 g IV every 6 to 8 hours
  • Severe, life-threatening infections: 2 g IV every 4 hours or 3 g IV every 6 hours.

Skin and Structure Infection

  • Uncomplicated infections (bacteremia is absent or unlikely): 1 g IV every 6 to 8 hours
  • Moderately severe or severe infections: 1 g IV every 4 hours or 2 g IV every 6 to 8 hours
  • Severe, life-threatening infections: 2 g IV every 4 hours or 3 g IV every 6 hours

Urinary Tract Infection

  • Uncomplicated infections (bacteremia is absent or unlikely): 1 g IV every 6 to 8 hours
  • Moderately severe or severe infections: 1 g IV every 4 hours or 2 g IV every 6 to 8 hours
  • Severe, life-threatening infections: 2 g IV every 4 hours or 3 g IV every 6 hours.
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Pediatric Intraabdominal Infection

  • 3 months or older: 80 to 160 mg/kg/day IV divided in 4 to 6 equal doses
  • Maximum dose: 12 g/day

Pediatric Osteomyelitis

  • 3 months or older: 80 to 160 mg/kg/day IV divided in 4 to 6 equal doses
  • Maximum dose: 12 g/day

Side Effects of Cefoxitin

The most common

More common

Rare

Drug Interactions of Cefoxitin

Cefoxitin may interact with following drugs, supplements, & may change the efficacy of drugs

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Pregnancy Catagory of Cefoxitin

FDA Pregnancy Category  B

Pregnancy

It is not known if cefoxitin is safe for use by pregnant women. This medication should not be used during pregnancy unless the benefits outweigh the risks. If you become pregnant while taking this medication, contact your doctor immediately.

Lactation

This medication may pass into breast milk. If you are a breastfeeding mother and are taking cefoxitin it may affect your baby. Talk to your doctor about whether you should continue breastfeeding. It is not known if cefoxitin is safe for children under 6 months of age.

References

cefoxitin

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