Black Jamuna/Jamun (Syzygium cumini L) is an important indigenous plant of the family Myrtaceae originally from Indonesia and India. It produced a fruits in various size which is underutilized. The fruit pulp is sweet and seeds are acrid, sour, tonic. The pup and seeds are used for traditional medicine against diabetes, diarrhoea and ringworm (Benherlal and Arumughan 2007). The ripen fruits are purplish black in colour due to the presence of anthocyanins. Fruits are rich in minerals and have high antioxidant property which contributes to many health benefits. Jamun is highly perishable, therefore, very difficult to store and market at distant places. Jamun seeds are used in traditional medicine. The presence of oxalic, tannic, gallic acids and other alkaloids create one to feel such an astringency taste. The secondary metabolites have been reported to be potent free radical scavengers (Ayyanar and Subash-babu 2012). Phenolic and flavonoid compounds present in S. cumini are responsible for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities (De Bona et al. 2016; Hossain et al. 2016).
Nutritional Value of Black Jamuna/Jamun
|Serving Size : 100mg|
|Total lipid (fat) [g]||0.23|
|Carbohydrate, by difference [g]||15.56|
|Calcium, Ca [mg]||19|
|Iron, Fe [mg]||0.19|
|Magnesium, Mg [mg]||15|
|Phosphorus, P [mg]||17|
|Potassium, K [mg]||79|
|Sodium, Na [mg]||14|
|Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid [mg]||14.3|
|Vitamin B-6 [mg]||0.04|
|Vitamin B-12 [µg]||0|
|Vitamin A, RAE [µg]||0|
|Vitamin A, IU [IU]||3|
|Fatty acids, total trans [g]||0|
|Sources include: USDA|
Health Benefits of Black Jamuna/Jamun
- Antidiabetic assay by in vitro α-amylase inhibitory activity – The porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA) was used for screening of α-amylase inhibitors from the fruit part extracts. The inhibition assay was performed using the chromogenic di-nitro salicylic acid (DNS) method (Miller 1959). The negative control was also included to eliminate the absorbance produced by fruit extracts. One unit of enzyme activity is defined as the amount of enzyme required to release one micromole of maltose from starch per min under the assay conditions. The IC50 values were defined as the concentration of the fruit extract, containing the α-amylase inhibitor that inhibited 50% of the PPA activity. The assay was performed as above except that the inhibitor/fruit extract concentrations were varied from 0.1 to 300 µg for the determination of the inhibitor concentration at which 50% inhibition of enzyme activity occurs (IC50). Acarbose was used as a positive control at a concentration range of 8–40 µg.
- Antioxidant assay by DPPH radical scavenging activity – The antioxidant activity was measured by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method (McCune and Johns 2002). The intensity of disappearance of violet color was measured at 517 nm in the spectrophotometer. Ascorbic acid (10–50 µg) was used as a positive control. The percent of inhibition or scavenging of free radicals was determined by the formula— percent Inhibition of DPPH = [(Control OD − Sample OD)/Control OD] × 100, where control was prepared as above without fruit extract.
- TPC and antioxidant activity – Extraction of phenolics and antioxidants are highly dependent on the condition of extraction like temperature, pH, nature of solvent, solid solvent ratio, etc., the most crucial one being the nature of the solvent. Therefore, WJFC was extracted with different solvents for assessment of TPC and antioxidant activity.
- Vitamin C – Vitamin C was estimated by following the direct colorimetric method using 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol dye (Ranganna 2007). For this, 5 g WJFC was extracted by maceration with 20 ml of 2 % metaphosphoric acid (HPO3), followed by centrifugation at 3500 g for 15 min. The extract was assayed to determine vitamin C and results were expressed as mg ascorbic acid
- Skin Care – With plenty of vitamin A, vitamin E, and other , this fruit can improve the appearance of the skin by reducing oxidative stress and lowering inflammation levels. Apply the paste before going to bed and wash it in the morning. Regular application of these ingredients is helpful in curing and treating of acne. The problem of oily skin is controlled with the mix of jamun pulp, barley flour, amla juice and rose water. Use this mix as a face mask and wash when it gets dry. To control dark spots from your face, the paste of jamun seed powder, lemon powder, gram flour, few drops of almond oil and rose water, is prepared. Apply it on your face and wash it when it dries off. Jamun cures leucoderma after stimulating the melanin.
- Protects Heart – Regular consumption of jamun fruit or juice will help with high , as the fruit contains notable levels of potassium, which is a and reduces your risk of atherosclerosis and heart attacks.
- Boosts Immune System – There is a good amount of vitamin C and other antioxidants in this fruit, which can help to stimulate the production of white blood cells and increase the strength of the immune system.
- Improves Circulation – Some of the components of this fruit are critical for the production of hemoglobin, which the body needs to maintain healthy and the delivery of oxygen and nutrients.
- Weight Loss – Some people use jamun to lose weight, as the high fiber content satiates and optimized digestion.
- Diabetes Regulator – Jamun regulates sugar levels and brings them down by up to 30%! If you’re worried about experiencing high sugar levels before labor or gestational diabetes, eat Jamun. Period.
- Improves Digestion – Forget diarrhea and ulcers when you’re consuming Jamun! Those will go away naturally, and you’ll feel the benefits of having a healthy stomach pretty soon. Jamun also relieves constipation.
- Improves Mood – You won’t be feeling tired, cranky or fatigued anytime soon when you take a bite of your Jamun! Since Jamuns are high in potassium and antioxidants, you’ll be surging with energy throughout your pregnancy!
- Prevents Infections and Anaemia – Since Jamuns boost your immunity and are rich in antioxidants, you don’t fall sick with infections or diseases. Your RBC (Red blood cell) count increases, thus preventing anemia as well. Develops Baby’s Vision Jamun is popular for its high Vitamin A content too. Vitamin A is an essential nutrient required for promoting proper eyesight in babies.
- Maintains Oral Health – Jamuns are well known for their antibacterial properties and are super effective in preventing various dental problems. Eat some Jamun fruit during pregnancy to maintain your oral health and keep your teeth in great shape.
- Helps In Overcoming Constipation – One of the best benefits of Java plum or jamun is that it is helpful in overcoming constipation. Extracts of Java plum mixed with the skin is beneficial in overcoming constipation. The fruit contains about 0.9 grams/100 grams of fiber that helps the colon work system.
- Bone And Tooth Health – Fresh java plum or jamun has a lot of nutrients that are essential for maintaining healthy bones and teeth. Some of the nutrients are calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and iron. Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and iron are the nutrients that keep the bone density system and also prevent cavities. Individuals with calcium deficiency; are more prone to the risk of bone diseases like arthritis and osteoporosis, especially in the elderly people. For women, it is strongly recommended to consume java plum or jamun and avoid the risk of bone fragility disease.
- Helps In Improving Immunity – One more benefit of java plum is that it helps in improving immunity. It has a lot of nutrients and vitamins that aids to boost immunity. Some nutrients in the Java plum or jamun are like sugar, salt, calcium, protein, minerals and vitamin C.
- Beneficial In Overcoming Abdominal Pain – Fresh Java plum contains Kaempferol, anthocyanin and ellagic acid, which are all efficacious to help the circulation of digestion, intestinal function and help in lowering the problem of high blood pressure. You can consume fresh, cleanly washed java plum or jamun regularly to overcome abdominal pain.
- Helps In RBC Formation – Java plums help in Red blood cells formed in the body. Lack of RBVs can cause anemia, low concentration pattern, emotional disturbances, and weaker body. Consuming Java plum or jamun, 100 grams every day can meet the bodies need to produce red blood cells. This is because of the iron content present in Java plums which is beneficial to the health and the body.
- Helps In Treating Lymphatic Disorders – Splenic enlargement disease can occur, as there is a body system that regulates hormones for the functioning of the spleen that is not working properly. The disease is generally accompanied by some symptoms like pain in the pit of the liver, abdominal discomfort, reduced appetite and weight reduced dramatically.
- Increases Appetite – Anyone can experience the problem of appetite disorder. The cause also varies greatly from indigestion, constipation, abdominal pain and other diseases. But consuming the java plum or jamun which is still fresh, is very beneficial in improving the digestive system so that it can increase appetite. You can consume fresh Java plum as much as 50 grams by mixing it with honey or sugar water. You can feel your stomach is comfortable and this will increase the appetite.
- Treating Headaches – Java plums or jamun are also known to treat headaches. The content of astringent substances present in the fruit relieves headaches with varying degrees of severity. It is recommended to eat fresh Java plum as a snack for individuals suffering from headaches.
- Treats Chronic Cough – Chronic cough can be referred to be a severe cough and may damage your throat and respiratory system. Eating java plum can be helpful in avoiding chronic cough. This is because of the presence of protein and natural nutrients in it.
- Asthma – There is one more health benefit of Java plum and that is it is very much essential for patients with asthma. People who suffer from asthma will definitely be very disturbed when their asthma relapses. You can prepare a natural remedy for people with asthma by using Java Plum. These benefits can be very pronounced for people suffering from asthma.
- Anti-bacterial – Bacteria that enter the body can cause some infections, like illness, skin and mouth infections etc. In order to treat and kill all the bacteria, you can use take some java plum or jamun as it is known to have anti-bacterial properties.
- Promotes Cardiovascular Health – Let’s not forget the heart-healthy benefits of eating Jamun. Jamuns regulate your blood pressure levels which in turn, lowers your risk of heart attacks in the future substantially. Jamuns also have anti-inflammatory properties which prevent cholesterol oxidation during pregnancies.
- Prevents Premature Delivery – Jamuns have high magnesium content which is essential for preventing premature deliveries, thus ensuring complete fetal growth and development.
- Prevents Cancer – According to recent research reports, Jamun is found to have chemoprotective and radioprotective properties. These suppress the production of cancer-causing free radicals in the body, thus shielding mothers from the dangers of cancer and preventing its progress.
Jamun Juice Health Benefits
Jamun juice has many health and medicinal benefits. Being it seasonal fruit, one should try to have more and more amount of Jamun juice during the month of June, July, and August. Some of the amazing and surprising health benefits of jamun juice are given below.
- Drinking of Jamun juice is used to treat digestive disorders such as diarrhea, dysentery, and dyspepsia.
- In case of diarrhea, Jamun juice is beneficial after mixing the little amount of sat in it.
- Jamun juice along with curd is good against digestive problems.
- Teeth related problems can be solved by applying Jamun juice or by drinking it.
- Jamun juice is beneficial in treating piles and hemorrhoids.
- Drinking of the fresh fruit juice helps in a cough and asthma.
- Jamun juice enhances your immune system.
- It protects you from cold and acts as anti-aging agent.
- The juice of the fruits is given in spleen enlargement and urine retention.
- Jamun juice should be taken to overcome the problem of female sterility.